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There are many ways to talk to other peers. In automerge-repo this is captured by the NetworkAdapter interface. Unlike StorageAdapters a repository can have many (or zero) NetworkAdapters.

"network" is quite a broad term in automerge-repo. It really means "any other instance of Repo which I am communicating with by message passing". This means that as well as network adapters for obvious things like websockets, we also implement network adapters for less traditional channels such as MessageChannel or BroadcastChannel.


The websocket NetworkAdapter has two parts. This is because the websocket protocol requires a server and a client. The parts are named NodeWSServerAdapter and BrowserWebsocketClientAdapter, but don't take these names too seriously, they will both work in a browser or in Node.


The server side of the adapter is NodeWSServerAdapter, which should be used in combination with the ws library.

import { WebSocketServer } from "ws";
import { NodeWSServerAdapter } from "@automerge/automerge-repo-network-websocket";

const wss = new WebSocketServer({ port: 8080 });
const adapter = new NodeWSServerAdapter(wss);

Usage with express

Often you aren't running the websocket server as a standalone thing but instead as part of an existing HTTP server. Here's an example of such a situation in an express app.

import { WebSocketServer } from "ws";
import { NodeWSServerAdapter } from "@automerge/automerge-repo-network-websocket";
import express from "express";

const wss = new WebSocketServer({ noServer: true });
const server = express();
server.on("upgrade", (request, socket, head) => {
wss.handleUpgrade(request, socket, head, (socket) => {
wss.emit("connection", socket, request);
const adapter = new NodeWSServerAdapter(wss);


The client side of the connection is BrowserWebsocketClientAdapter.

import { BrowserWebSocketClientAdapter } from "@automerge/automerge-repo-network-websocket";

const network = new BrowserWebSocketClientAdapter("ws://localhost:3030");


@automerge/automerge-repo-network-messagechannel is a NetworkAdapter for communicating between processes within the same browser using a MessageChannel.

import { MessageChannelNetworkAdapter } from "@automerge/automerge-repo-network-messagechannel";
import { Repo } from "@automerge/automerge-repo";

const { port1: leftToRight, port2: rightToLeft } = new MessageChannel();
const rightToLeft = new MessageChannelNetworkAdapter(rightToLeft);
const leftToRight = new MessageChannelNetworkAdapter(leftToRight);

const left = new Repo({
network: [leftToRight],
const right = new Repo({
network: [rightToLeft],


@automerge/automerge-repo-network-broadcastchannel is a NetworkAdapter for commuicating between processes in the same browser using a BroadcastChannel. This will in general be quite inefficient because the sync protocol is point-to-point so even though BroadcastChannel is a broadcast channel, we still have to duplicate each message for every peer in the channel. It's better to use MessageChannel if you can, but BroadcastChannel is good in a pinch.

import { BroadcastChannelNetworkAdapter } from "@automerge/automerge-repo-network-broadcastchannel";

const network = new BroadcastChannelNetworkAdapter();